Painting, a type of fine ar
t, artwork, which is created using paints applied to any hard surface. Like other forms of art, painting performs ideological and cognitive tasks, and also serves as a sphere of creating objective aesthetic values, being one of the highly developed forms of human labor.
Painting reflects and in the light of various concepts evaluates the spiritual content of the era, its social development. Powerfully influencing the feelings and thoughts of the audience, forcing the latter to experience the reality depicted by the artist, it serves as an effective means of public education. Many paintings have documentary information value.
Due to the visibility of the image, the artist’s assessment of life, expressed in his work, acquires special convincingness for the viewer. Creating artistic images, painting uses color and drawing, the expressiveness of strokes, which ensures the flexibility of its language, allows it to reproduce on the plane the richness of the world, the volume of objects, their quality originality and material flesh, the depth of the depicted space, light, inaccessible to other types of fine art – air environment. Painting not only directly and clearly embodies all the visible phenomena of the real world, shows wide pictures of people’s lives, but also seeks to reveal and interpret the essence of human processes and the internal world of a person.
Available to this type of art, the breadth and completeness of the coverage of reality also affects the abundance of its genres (historical, everyday, battle, animalistic, etc.).
According to their purpose, by the nature of execution and images, they distinguish: monumental and decorative painting (wall paintings, plafonds, panels), participating in the organization of architectural space, creating an ideologically rich environment for a person; easel (paintings), more intimate in nature, usually not associated with any particular place; decoration (sketches of theater and film sets and costumes); icon painting; thumbnail (manuscript illustrations, portraits, etc.).
By the nature of the substances that bind the pigment (coloring matter), by the technological methods of fixing the pigment on the surface, oil painting, water painting on plaster – raw (fresco) and dry (and secko), tempera, adhesive painting, wax painting, painting enamel, are distinguished ceramic paints (binders – low-melting glasses, fluxes, glazes – are fixed by firing on ceramics), silicate paints (binder – soluble glass), etc. Mosaic and stained glass that directly interfere with it same as the monumental painting, graphic and decorative tasks. Watercolor, gouache, pastel, and mascara also serve for the execution of paintings.
The main expressive means of painting – color – with its expression, the ability to evoke various sensory associations enhances the emotionality of the image, determines the wide visual and decorative possibilities of this art form. In the works, he forms an integral system (color). Usually one or another series of interconnected colors and their shades is used (the gamut is colorful), although there is also a painting with shades of the same color (monochrome). The color composition (the arrangement and relationship of color spots) provides a certain color unity of the work, affects the course of its perception by the viewer, being a part of its artistic structure specific to the work. Another expressive means of painting – drawing (line and chiaroscuro) – organizes the image rhythmically and compositionally with color; a line delimits volumes from one another, is often a constructive basis for a pictorial form, allows one to reproduce the outlines of objects in a generalized or detailed manner, to reveal their smallest elements.