Art Evaluation Criteria
The term “art”, the definition of “art” can be attributed to a variety of objects – from prehistoric drawings on stones and ceramics to rubble household and industrial rubbish in art galleries. But although music, theater, ballet and literature are also referred to the field of art, most often this term implies visual art, and primarily painting.
For centuries, people have been trying to understand what art is. Artists and art historians fought and argued, holding various opinions. (The French artist Manet so diverged his views with one of the critics that he challenged him to a duel.) There are many controversial questions, but no, and there will never be any definite, intelligible answers. Everyone has their own tastes and opinions – and only you can choose what you like best.
For some, art should be, first of all, beautiful, for others – realistic, third more important is whether it conveys a mood or feeling. There are so many diverse paintings in the world: some differ in almost photographic accuracy, others are much more schematic, but they convey the mood very accurately …
Some people believe that art should express certain ideas, while others prefer to enjoy art for the sake of art. It was precisely on this occasion that the Impressionists engaged in heated debates – some of them believed that scenes from modern life should be reproduced, while others were more interested in studying the influence of light on objects.
Vincent Van Gogh. Starlight Night. Saint-Remy is often the subject of fierce debate and the value of works of art. Vincent van Gogh died in poverty, since no one wanted to buy his paintings, and today Van Gogh’s works are among the most valuable works of art in the world.
Today more than ever, art requires novelty and originality. Artists are constantly striving to push the boundaries of what we are used to calling art. The public’s imagination is also struck by the huge amounts that collectors are sometimes willing to pay for works of “new art”. Today, among the objects that artists exhibit, you can find a bicycle wheel, placed on a stool; image of a pipe with a sign “This is not a pipe”; a pile of brick; pure white canvas; a lot of garbage left after a banquet; a bed with an unmade bed … Do you think this looks like art? Most likely, you do not expect to see such things at all in an art gallery! Does being here make them art? However, they can provoke a violent reaction and make people look at things in a new way – and after all, works of traditional painting often aspire to this.
If we turn to the history of art, we can see how artistic styles and techniques have changed over time. But only one thing remained unchanged – the real work should always excite the soul, not leave anyone indifferent …
Many people are wondering if there are any rules regarding viewing pictures. I think that in order to enjoy the contemplation of a painting, it is not necessary to know a lot about painting, but knowledge may help you get more pleasure from the paintings.
Depending on what is depicted, the paintings are divided into several groups, or genres. Main genres: portrait, landscape and still life. Some paintings are generally difficult to attribute to a particular genre. And such paintings are becoming more and more.
In painting, the whole space is usually organized: its composition is such that it makes us perceive the picture in a certain way. The most important characters or objects that should attract the attention of the viewer can be distinguished by the size, brightness of colors; the artist can place them in the center of the canvas.
Holbein Hans. Messengers To help the viewer understand the meaning of a painting, artists often place hidden clues on it – symbols. Sometimes they are associated with general concepts. For example, a book symbolizes teaching, a sword, or other weapon — battles, and a flowering branch of a tree or a flower symbolizes beauty and enjoyment. In addition, the symbols help to understand who is depicted in the picture. Famous characters, such as saints, are often depicted with symbolic objects associated with the history of their lives, so that connoisseurs can understand who the artist represented in his painting. You can find a lot of clues in any paintings – you just need to know what to look for.
For the perception of the picture, it is also very important to know what purpose it was created for: did the artist want to decorate the palace with it or painted it for the church? Or maybe intended for an exhibition in a gallery where she would delight visitors with her beauty or make them think about the ideas expressed in her? Is there any political, social, or moral subtext in the work, or is it important to express emotions?